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            當前位置 : 首頁 > 技術支持 > 技術支持

            光電催化現象和光電催化發展史

            發布時間:2018-11-12 16:40:07

            光電催化的歷史

              光電催化技術是通過催化劑利用光子能量,將許多需要苛刻條件下發生的化學反應轉化為在溫和的環境下進行反應的先進技術。它作為一門年輕的學科,涉及半導體物理、光電化學、催化化學、材料科學、納米技術等諸多領域,在能源、環境、健康等人類面臨的重大問題方面均有應用前景,一直是前沿科學技術領域的研究熱點之一。
             

            光電催化現象的發現

              早在上世紀30年代,發現在氧氣存在以及在紫外光輻照的情況下,TiO2對染料具有漂白作用以及對纖維具有降解作用的現象,并且證實反應前后TiO2保持穩定。但是由于當時半導體理論和分析技術的局限性,這種現象被簡單的歸因為是紫外光誘促使氧氣在TiO2表面上產生了高活性的氧物種所致。而且由于當時社會對能源和環境問題的認識還遠沒有今天深入,因而這種現象的發現并沒有引起人們足夠的重視。
             

            能源危機帶來的發展機遇

              七十年代初期,正值高速發展的西方社會遭遇有史以來最嚴重的石油危機,嚴重制約了其經濟發展。氫能作為一種可替代石油的未來清潔能源,開始受到世界各國政府和科學家的關注。1972年,Fujishima和Honda在Nature雜志上發表了在近紫外光照射下,TiO2電極分解水產生氫氣的論文。其文中提出的利用太陽光催化分解H2O制H2被認為是最佳制氫途徑之一(見圖1)。這種將太陽能轉化為化學能的方法迅速成為極富吸引力的研究方向,各發達國家和一批知名科學家均投入這一領域的研究。
             
            圖1 光電催化制氫的循環利用途徑
             

            光催化劑和光電催化反應

              光電催化劑是指在光的輻照下,自身不起變化,卻可以促進化學反應的物質。促進化合物的合成或使化合物降解的過程稱之為光催化反應。光催化反應利用光能轉換成為化學反應所需的能量,來產生催化作用(見圖2)。它在自然界中最具代表性的例子為植物的“光合作用”。
             
            圖2 光電催化反應和光合作用示意圖
             
              光電催化劑中目前研究和應用最廣泛的是半導體光催化劑,其代表是TiO2。半導體在光激發下,電子從價帶躍遷到導帶位置,在導帶形成光生電子,在價帶形成光生空穴。利用光生電子-空穴對的還原和氧化性能,可以光解水制備H2和O2,還原二氧化碳形成有機物,還可以使氧氣或水分子激發成超氧自由基及羥基自由基等具有強氧化力的自由基,降解環境中的有機污染物,不會造成資源浪費與形成二次污染。
             

            光電催化的發展趨勢

              光電催化技術是近年來國際上最活躍的研究領域之一,但是目前主要以TiO2半導體為基礎的光催化技術還存在著如量子產率低、太陽能利用率低及回收困難等幾個關鍵的科學技術難題,使其在工業上廣泛應用受到極大制約。以上問題的根本解決有賴于基礎研究的深入,如提高光催化反應的活性,提高光量子產率,拓展光吸收波長等。盡管目前看來,光催化技術離大規模生產和應用還有一段距離,但是其所顯示的巨大潛在優異性能是不容忽視的。因此,在不久的將來,伴隨著這些關鍵問題的突破,納米光催化材料的實際應用必將得到實現,并改善我們的生存環境,給我們的日常生活帶來更多的便利。

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